Part of Jesus' cry of anguish on the cross, taken from Psalm 22:1. The word is Hebrew or Aramaic, but its exact meaning is unknown.Sabaoth, Lord of
See Lord of SabaothSabbath
Rest; a time when a person does no work. The fourth of the Ten Commandments tells people to do no work every seventh day, because God rested on the seventh day of creation. This was called the Sabbath day. God also required the Israelites to stop planting and harvesting one year out of every seven. The year of jubilee was a Sabbath year. The term comes from the Hebrew word for "cease."Sabbath day's journey "a hundred yards"
Jesus had several conflicts with the Pharisees because of the Sabbath day. The Pharisees said no one could do any work of any kind on the Sabbath. Jesus said it was permitted to heal people and to rejoice on the Sabbath.
A distance of two thousand cubits.Sabbath Year
A time of Sabbath for the land. The Israelites were to observe this by not planting or harvesting any food once every seven years.sackcloth
A rough cloth usually made from black goats' hair. It was called sackcloth because it was often used to make sacks, being too rough for clothing. People wore sackcloth to show mourning, sadness, or repentance.sacrament
A ceremony or ritual that has a sacred purpose or meaning. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are examples of sacraments. The term does not appear in the Bible.sacred
Holy; set apart to God's use; devoted to God.sacrifice
1 Corinthians 3:17
• Noun: Something that is offered or given up, usually as an act of worship. The offerings that God required of the Israelites were sacrifices of animals, food, money, or time. God condemned all sacrifices to idols.Sadducees
• Verb: To offer or give up something, usually as an act of worship.
A group of religious leaders the time of Jesus. The Sadducees believed only in the law of Moses; they ignored the Pharisees' oral law. Many Sadducees were priests, and many members of the Sanhedrin were Sadducees. They were very unpopular because they concerned themselves mostly with political power.saints
God's people.Salmon (* shady)
2 Chronicles 6:41
Husband of Rahab and father of Boaz; son of Nahshon; great-great-grandfather of David. Salmon is mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus.salvation
Forgiveness of sins; God's gift of eternal life. Salvation is explained in Romans 3:23; 6:23; 5:8; 10:8-10.Samaria (* watch mountains)
• A fortified city in the territory of Manasseh that served as the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel. Omri built the city after reigning at Ti'zah for seven years. The city was on a high hill directly northwest of Mount Ebal.Samaritans
1 Kings 16:23-24
• The whole area of Palestine between Judea and Galilee in New Testament times. The city of Samaria had been renamed to Sebaste by this time. The region of Samaria was part of the kingdom of Herod the Great. People who lived in this area were called Samaritans.
2 Kings 17:24
People who lived in Samaria and held to the religion of that area in New Testament times. The Samaritans believed that they were descended from the Israelite tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. They also believed they had a more pure version of the Pentateuch than the Jews. The Jews believed that the Samaritans were descended from the Assyrians and changed the Pentateuch to say what they wanted it to say. This is why Jews and Samaritans disliked each and did not get along.Samson (* sunny or sun hero)
Son of Manoah and twelfth judge of Israel after Abdon. Samson became famous for his great strength and many victories over the Philistines. Samson was a Nazirite from the day he was born, and this is the reason he was not supposed to cut his hair. Samson judged Israel 20 years. His story is told in Judges 13:1-16:31.Samuel (* name of God)
• Israelite prophet who anointed Saul and David as kings; son of Elkanah and Hannah reared by Eli in the tabernacle. Samuel was leader of Israel when the elders of Israel demanded a king. Samuel's story is told in First Samuel 1-28.Samuel, First
1 Samuel 1:20
• One of Issachar's grandsons and head of his clan; son of Tola.
Ninth book of the Old Testament and fourth of the books of history. First Samuel tells how Saul became king over Israel, and about his troubles. It begins in the days of the prophet Samuel and continues through Saul's tragic death at Gilboa. The book is also famous for the account of David and Goliath.Samuel, Second
1 Samuel 8:1-22
Tenth book of the Old Testament and fifth of the books of history. Second Samuel tells about David's deeds as king, including his mistakes and the many problems he hadsanctification
2 Samuel 5:1-3
The Christian doctrine that God works to make a person more and more like Christ, or more and more holy. The term comes from the verb sanctify.sanctify, sanctified
To make holy; to set apart as holy.sanctuary
1 Corinthians 1:2
Any place of God's presence.Sanhedrin
The official group of ruling priests and Levites among the Jews during New Testament times. The Sanhedrin held the highest authority over all religious matters and could try offenders for religious crimes such as blasphemy. Jesus was tried by the Sanhedrin for calling himself God.Sapphira
Wife of Ananias who lied to church leaders about the money she and her husband gave. Ananias and Sapphira were struck down for their sin.Sarah
Wife of Abraham; mother of Isaac. Her name means "princess"; God changed it from Sarai. God created a nation through Sarah and Abraham.Satan
Means, adversary, or enemy. Satan is God's enemy and the enemy of all God's people. Jesus called Satan the father of lies. Satan hates God and tries to stop God's work in the world. He is also called the devil.Saul (* desired)
1 Timothy 5:15
Two of the Bible's most important people:saved
• Saul son of Kish: First king of Israel. God chose Saul to be Israel's king after the elders of Israel insisted that Samuel give them one. But Saul quickly became famous for his short temper, extreme jealousy of David, and lack of concern for obedience to God. He ruled from Gibeah for 40 years.
Saul was from the tribe of Benjamin. He had several sons, the most famous is Jonathan and Ishbosheth.
1 Samuel 9:15-10:1
1 Chronicles 10:4-6
• Saul of Tarsus: Hebrew name of the apostle Paul.
Short for: saved from sin; forgiven of all sin; born again.Savior
The one who saves people from their sins; Jesus Christ.scapegoat
2 Timothy 1:10
A goat used to make atonement for the people of Israel on the Day of Atonement, The goat, or "goat of removal," was sent out into the wilderness as a symbol of the removal of sin.scourge
A barbed leather strap attached to a stiff rod, used by the Romans to beat criminals before execution; a barbed whip.scribe
2 Chronicles 10:11,14
• A person who wrote and copied important documents. In Old Testament times, kings often had scribes write letters, record happenings, and take notes on legal matters. Scribes also copied the Scriptures.Scripture, Scriptures
• An older word for teacher of the law.
Written words of God.scroll
2 Peter 3:16
A piece of paper rolled into a cylinder and used for writing. Scrolls were read from side to side, with individual "pages" marked off with lines.Sea of Galilee
1 Samuel 10:25
The freshwater lake in the northern end of Palestine between Lake Huleh and the Dead Sea. In Old Testament times the Israelites called it the Sea of Kinnereth. In New Testament times the Romans called it the Sea of Tiberias.seal
Jesus spent a lot of time in the region of Galilee and did several miracles involving the sea. He provided a miraculous catch of fish; he walked on the water; he calmed a storm.
The Sea of Galilee is fed by the Jordan River at the north end, and it empties into the Jordan River at the south end. Sudden storms affect the lake whenever strong winds come from the east off the Golan Heights.
• Noun: An engraved picture or image used to make an impression in soft material. A seal could be round or flat. In Old Testament and New Testament times, people would stamp things with a metal seal to show that those things belonged to them or were authentic.second coming
• Verb: To stamp with a seal. The Bible says that the Holy Spirit seals his people.
A reference to the return of Jesus.second death
1 Thessalonians 4:16
See deathself control
Rule of oneself; choosing how to behave despite feelings or desires. Self-control is one of the nine Fruits of the Spirit.sepulchre
2 Peter 1:5-7
An older word for grave or tomb.seraphs
Spiritual beings mentioned only in the book of Isaiah. Isaiah saw seraphs in his vision of God's throne. They sang praise to God and therefore may have been angels.Sermon on the Mount
The name given to the teachings of Jesus recorded in Matthew 5:1- 7:29, one of the most important collections of commands in the Bible. The Sermon on the Mount includes the Beatitudes; instructions on keeping the law; teachings on anger, lust, and hatred; teaching on prayer giving, and fasting.serpent
• A slave; a person forced to work against his or her willSeth (* setting, slip)
• A hired worker; a person who works for another person for pay.
• A person who chooses to serve or help another person.
Third son of Adam and Eve. Seth was an ancestor of Noah.Shadrach (* decree of the moongod)
Luke 3:23, 38
Babylonian name given to Hanoniah, a Hebrew exile in the service of King Nebuchadnezzar. Shadrach was one of the three men thrown into the fiery furnace for refusing to bow down to an idol of gold. The other men were Meshach and AbednegoShear-Jashub (* a remnant shall return)
Isaiah's firstborn son. Shear-Jashub's name means "a remnant will return." God told Isaiah to take his son with him as a message of hope to King Ahaz as Jerusalem was about to be attacked.Sheba, queen of (* an oath)
See queen of ShebaShechem (* shoulder)
One of the six cities of refuge, a city in the territory allotted to Manasseh but also near Ephraim and often described as being in the hill country of Ephraim. Shechem was between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim. The city played a big part in Abimelech's power struggle.sheep
A animal that chews the cud and has cloven hooves and a coat of wool, one of the kinds of animals the Israelites were allowed to sacrifice for sin. Sheep are closely related to goats. People who could not afford sheep or goats were allowed to sacrifice doves or pigeons instead.shekel
In some parts of the Bible, sheep are used as a symbol of those who love God. Psalm 23 is one famous example.
A unit of weight equal to about eleven-and-a-half grams, or two-fifths of an ounce; two bekas. Like the mina and the talent, the shekel could be used as a standard unit of money in trade.Shem (* name)
2 Kings 7:16
Firstborn son of Noah. Shem and his family were on the ark during the flood. His descendants became nations that settled north and east of Canaan.shepherd
1 Chronicles 1:17
A person who tended sheep. A shepherd's duties included leading the sheep to good pasture, providing water for the sheep, keeping sheep close by, protecting sheep from wild animals, tending to sheeps' cuts and wounds, giving rest to birthing mothers and lambs, and doing anything else necessary to care for the flock. These duties often required shepherds to spend weeks away from home at a time, so they had to live in tents and walk wherever needed to find pasture for the flock. Shepherds had to be skilled and resourceful. They used a rod or staff to guide sheep and to protect them. Many, like David, were also skilled with a sling as a weapon against wild animals. When David was a shepherd, he passed the time by playing his harp.Shibboleth
The Bible refers to shepherds well over 100 times because of their importance. Many people depended on sheep for food and wool, and sheep were a key part of Israel's sacrifices and offerings. Shepherds also cared for sheep much the way God cares for people, and this led many of the prophets and writers of Psalms to speak of God as a shepherd. Psalm 23 is one of the Bible's most famous passages about shepherds. Jesus called himself "the Good Shepherd."
A password used by Jephthah's Gileadite forces. Their enemies could not say "Shibboleth" right, and this enabled them to tell friend from foe. Forty-two thousand men died for failing the test.Shiloh
City in the hill country of Ephraim where the Israelites set up the tabernacle right after the conquest of Canaan. Shiloh was Israel's capital and center of worship all during the time of the judges. Samuel grew up in the tabernacle at Shiloh.Shishak
King of Egypt during the later years of Solomon's reign and at the beginning of Rehoboam's; pharaoh Sheshonq I. Shishak did a lot of damage to the cities of Judah that Rehoboam had spent years fortifying.showbread
1 Kings 11:40
2 Chronicles 12:9
See bread of the presenceshrine
A place of idol worship, usually a small building or shelter.sign
2 Kings 10:25
A deed or event that indicates Deity; a wonder; a miracle or miraculous sign.signet ring
A ring with a seal on it.signs and wonders
Jewish Christian and leader in the church at Jerusalem during the early days of Christianity; also called Silvanus. Silas went with Paul on his second missionary journey and helped with the ministry at Corinth. He also helped with the writing of First Peter.Simeon (* hearing)
1 Thessalonians 1:1
1 Peter 5:12
A common name among the Israelites:Simon
• Jacob's son, the tribe of Israel named after him, and the land allotted to that tribe. Leah was Simeon's mother. The land of Judah surrounded the land of Simeon.
• Another spelling for Simon.
• Jewish prophet who recognized the infant Jesus as the Messiah.
• "Simeon called Niger;" one of the Christian leaders at Antioch
when God sent Paul on his first missionary journey.
• One of the people mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus.
A common name among the Israelites:sin
• Simon Peter: son of John and disciple of Jesus. Jesus gave him the name Peter as a nickname (the Greek form of Cophas). He was the first disciple to express belief in Jesus as the Son of God and one of the most important of Jesus' twelve disciples. He wrote First Peter and Second Peter.
• Simon the Zealot: Jewish man who became one of the Twelve disciples of Jesus.
• Judas Iscariot's father.
• Leper from Bethany who welcomed Jesus into his home; possibly related to Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.
• A Pharisee who invited Jesus to dinner.
• A passerby from Cyrene forced to carry Jesus' cross.
• Simon Magus: A sorcerer who clashed with Peter while he was in Samaria shortly after the stoning of Stephen.
• Simon the tanner: leatherworker who gave lodging to Peter while he was in Joppa.
• Noun: Any act of wrongdoing; any violation of God's law. In Old Testament times, God allowed the Israelites to make atonement for their sins through the offerings. Today, God allows a person to make atonement by receiving the atonement that Jesus Christ provides.sin offering
Second, sin is a part of human nature that cannot be removed. Every person is a sinner. God seeks to change that in us by sanctification.
2 Corinthians 5:21
1 John 1:7-9
• Verb: To do wrong; to break God's commands; to do what God says not to do. All people sin, but Christians have the benefit of sanctification.
2 Chronicles 6:36-39
One of three kinds of sacrifices that the Israelites made to pay for sin. The sin offering was required of anyone who broke God's commands accidentally or without meaning to. It involved the offering of a perfect bull, goat, lamb, pair of doves, or pair of pigeons, depending on what the person could afford. A very poor person could bring fine flour instead. The rules for sin offerings can be found in Leviticus 4:1-5:13 and 6:24-30.Sin, Wilderness of
See Desert of SinSinai
• The V-shaped portion of land between Egypt and the land of Palestine, bounded on the southwest and southeast by the Red Sea.sinful
• A region of rocky desert in the south of the Sinai peninsula. Sinai is home to Mount Sinai and the Desert of Sinai. The Israelites traveled through this area during the Exodus.
Wicked; evil; bad.sinful nature
The part of human nature that loves wrongdoing; evil or wicked desires.sinner
• A person who is hostile to God's will; an unbeliever; a wicked person.Sisera
• A person who is guilty of obvious sins.
• A person who has sinned even once.
• Commander of Jabin's army defeated in battle by Barak and Deborah, andSiyon, Sirion (* breastplate)
killed in his tent by Jael
• A temple servant during the time of Nehemiah.
Another name for Hermon.Skull, Place of the
A person who is owned by another. Joseph was a slave of Potiphar. Onesimus was a slave of Philemon. The Exodus came about because of God's desire to free the Israelites from slavery in Egyptsling
• Noun: A long, narrow strip of leather with a wide portion in the middle used for throwing stones. David used a sling to kill Goliath.Sloth
• Verb: To throw a stone with a sling. The warriors of Benjamin were once famous for their slinging skills.
LazySodom (* burning)
A city where Lot lived. God destroyed the city because it was so wicked.Solomon (* peaceful)
Son of David and third king of Israel. Solomon was famous for his wisdom, but he also had hundreds of wives and concubines who turned him away from God. Solomon wrote the books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes.Son of David
2 Samuel 5:13-14
1 Kings 1:38-39
1 Kings 7:1
A title of Jesus Christ. It means that Jesus is descended from David. The messianic prophecies say that the Messiah would be a descendant of David.Son of God
A title of Jesus Christ.son of man, Son of Man
• "son of man": A human being; a person.song of ascents
• "Son of Man": A title of Jesus Christ. It means that Jesus is a human being; a man.
One of fifteen Psalms (120-134) that are also called "Pilgrim Psalms." These Psalms were sung by worshipers going to Jerusalem for one of the three annual feasts (the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks, or the Feast of Booths).Song of Solomon
See Song of SongsSong of Songs
Twenty-second book of the Old Testament and fifth of the books of poetry. Solomon wrote the Song of Songs for his wife. The book is about the joys of marriage.sons of God
Song of Songs 1:1
• God's people; also called "children of God."
A fortune-teller; a diviner.sorcerer
A person who uses or controls supernatural forces through magic or sorcery; a diviner; a magician.sorcery, sorceries
Use of supernatural powers; magic.Sosthenes (* of sound strength)
The synagogue ruler in Corinth during Paul's second missionary journey who was beaten by an angry mob. Certain Jews did not like Paul's preaching about Jesus and wanted Galilo to take him to trial. Gallio refused and Sosthenes was beaten.soul
The essence of a person; the emotions, personality, and spiritual part of a person God created every soul, and the soul lives on after the body dies.South Gate
One of the gates in the walls of Solomon's temple. Obed-Edom was its gate-keeper. Ezekiel also mentioned a south gate in the temple he saw in his vision.southern kingdom
1 Chronicles 26:14-19
The kingdom known as Judah that was formed after the split between Rehoboam and Jeroboam. The southern kingdom became known as Juda; because only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin stayed loyal to Rehoboam, and Judah was the larger of the two. Over the years, this kingdom had 18 kings and one queen.Sovereign Lord
2 Chronicles 11:1-4
It means "Lord Yahweh," a name for God.span
A measure of distance used in Old Testament times: The distance from the tip of the little finger to the tip of the thumb of a spread-out hand. The Israelites used the span as a standard unit of length. It was equal to about twenty-three centimeters, or nine inches; one-half a cubit; three handbreadths.spear
A pole with a sharp point or blade at one end, a very common stabbing weapon used in Old Testament times. Spears were used in hand-to-hand combat, like swords. Spears were longer than javelins but shorter than lances.spirit, Spirit
1 Samuel 19:9-10
1 Samuel 26:5-25
• Human emotions and attitudes.spiritual
Psalm 51:12, 17
• Any supernatural being such as an angel.
• The Holy Spirit.
Having to do with the spirit or soul.spiritual gift
1 Corinthians 2:13
A special talent or ability that God gives to us so we can help people.spotless
Every Christian has spiritual gifts.
1 Corinthians 1:7
1 Corinthians 12:4-11
Clean in behavior or attitude; blameless.staff
2 Peter 3:14
A stick or rod used to guide sheep, to steady a person while walking.Stephanas
First person to become a Christian in Greece, a Corinthian.Stephen
1 Corinthians: 1:16
1 Corinthians 16:15-18
Jewish Christian noted for his spiritual wisdom and also the first Christian martyr. Stephen was stoned to death by an angry mob after he preached about Jesus.stone
Noun: A rock.stoning
Verb: To kill by hitting with rocks; stoning.
Punishment used in Old Testament times. Several violations of the law, including idolatry, were punishable by stoning. Mediums were also stoned.stronghold
A fortification, fortified city, or fortress.stumble
1 Samuel 22:5
To fall down. "Stumble" is sometimes used as a synonym for sin.Succoth (* booths)
• A town near the Jabbok River and east of the Jordan in the territory allotted to Gad. Jacob named the place after setting up shelters for his animals there. "Succoth" means "booths" or "shelters."supplication
• A city in Egypt on the eastern border with Sinai and first place the Israelites stopped.
1 Kings 8:30
Capital city of Elam and of Persia during the time of Esther. Susa was about 80 kilometers north of the Persian Gulf.Susanna (* a lily)
One of the women who gave money to help support Jesus' ministry.Sychar
A town in Samaria on the east slope of Mount Ebal and one kilometer north of Jacob's well, where Jesus once talked with a Samaritan woman.synagogue
A place of worship and learning for a local congregation of Jews. Synagogues were not part of the tabernacle or temple worship; they arose during the Exile in Babylonia among Jews who loved God but could not worship at the temple in Jerusalem. Both Jesus and the apostle Paul preached in synagogues.Syracuse
A large port city on the east coast of Sicily in New Testament times. Paul stopped there on his way to Rome.Syria
Another word for the land of Aram.Go Home
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